Self-Limiting Beliefs: The Inner Enemies of Progress
What are they?
Self-limiting beliefs are those things you believe about yourself that place limitations on your abilities.They may be conscious or unconscious. They may be founded or unfounded eg:
I am fat so no one will marry me, or
I am not lucky; I won’t get the job.
That you are fat may well be true. That no one will marry you as a result definitely isn’t.Some people prefer fat partners, and it’s the person inside that really matters.And luck isn’t the criterion for getting a job. You get jobs based on merit.
Limitations are actually a thing of the mind. In reality we have none.You can do anything if you make up your mind to do it. Determination always finds a way around obstacles.Henry Ford once said, "If you think you can?. or if you think you can’t?you’re right!"It all depends on what you believe about yourself.
How do they work?
Our thoughts and beliefs colour our vision and perception of the world.They determine our actions or inactions.Thoughts affect feelings. Feelings affect behaviour. Behaviour produces results (or the lack of them). It all begins with our thoughts, since we have to accept a thought for it to become a belief.
It’s been said that whatever you believe becomes your reality. You do not believe what you see; rather you see what you already believe.For this reason, two people facing the same situation may interpret it differently, act according to their different beliefs and experience different outcomes.
Self-limiting beliefs act like brakes on our progress.They leave us acting forward, but believing backward.They have been described as a malicious thermostat; you can take all the action you want, and in the right direction too. But anytime you make progress, the thermostat pulls you back to conform to your inner negative programming.
Attempting to move forward when you have backward programming is like expecting a photocopy to be different from the original.You’ve got to work on the original copy first, change the blue print, modify the DNA.
Your thoughts and beliefs are your programming. You cannot move beyond them.To get out of the vicious cycle of acting forward but believing backward you’ve got to identify these malicious thermostats, and eliminate them, consciously and continuously.Sometimes it’s a lifelong battle, but one that you can win each time.
What can I do about them?
Fortunately, you can get rid of self-limiting beliefs. But first you have to identify them.They could be lurking in the recesses of our minds without our awareness.Talking with a friend or consulting with a coach could give you more objective feedback as to their existence.
Once you have identified them, these limiting beliefs must be challenged every time they rear their heads. You must consciously reject any thought or suggestion that you are limited in any way. There is nothing you cannot do. You simply need to find the way and follow it to conclusion.
When self-limiting thoughts are starved of attention, they wither and die.Whatever you give attention to magnifies: whatever you do not attend to shrivels up and dies.Jim Rohn says it aptly: "You cannot take the mild approach to the weeds in your mental garden. You have got to hate weeds enough to kill them. Weeds are not something you handle; weeds are something you devastate."
No one is better than you are.If others do better, it is simply because they have had more practise, more experience, and/or they know something that you don’t. And all this can be remedied.God made us equal. It’s what we build upon His initial investment that makes the difference.
Read what the experts have said about our beliefs:
? Belief always precedes action. -James Allen
? Within you right now is the power to do things you never dreamed possible. This power becomes available to you just as soon as you can change your beliefs. -Maxwell Maltz
? Once your thoughts reflect what you genuinely want to be, the appropriate emotions and the consequent behaviour will flow automatically. Believe it and you will see it. -Wayne Dyer
In a nut shell, you must control the thoughts that play around in your mind. Admit and nurture only those that enhance your positive programming and move you to your goals.
Limiting beliefs could come from the things people said to us and about us while we grew up. Now is the time to devastate these weeds.They could also come from listening to negative people, watching/listening to negative TV and radio programs, reading negative books and magazines, and repeatedly hearing negative song lyrics. Always be on the look-out for possible sources, not fearfully, but with the view to detect and devastate them.
A proactive approach
A better way to deal with self-limiting thoughts is to prevent them in the first place.Examining the list of sources above will give you an idea of where their opposites (self-empowering beliefs) can be found – in the opposite directions!If you spend time with wholesome people and material, this will build healthy, wholesome thought patterns.A mind that is girded with strong, empowering thoughts is in fit enough condition to resist invasion by these malicious, illegal aliens.
Invest in inspirational books, seminars, CDs etc. Engage in positive self-talk or affirmations.And just in case self-limiting thoughts slip through unnoticed, perform periodic "mind-sanitation exercises" where you do some self-evaluation. Sometimes a seminar attendance or listening to an audio program is what will alert you of this incursion.
I wish you all the best as you build a strong and healthy mind.Go forward and do all the things you thought you could not do, because now you know that you can.Can I hear an "Amen" somebody?!
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (i/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ al-gə-ri-dhəm) is a step-by-step procedure for calculations. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning.
Logic (from the Ancient Greek: λογική, logike) has two meanings: first, it describes the use of valid reasoning in some activity; second, it names thenormative study of reasoning or a branch thereof. In the latter sense, it features most prominently in the subjects of philosophy, mathematics, andcomputer science.
Citations and References
Documenting your Sources
The name-and-year system.
The alphabet-number system.
The Citation-Order System (typically used in engineering–IEEE documentation).
Documentation on the Internet:
Students’ Guide to Preventing and Avoiding Plagiarism
Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary defines Plagiarism using another’s words and ideas and passing them on as your own. Words, ideas, or knowledge are considered the Intellectual Property of the original author. U.S. Copyright Law protects the author. When others, including students, use an author’s work and present it as their own without giving proper credit, they are dishonest, and this leads to plagiarism. Over the past years, with the increase in the use of technology and the Internet to research and write term papers, students have discovered how much easier and faster it is cut and paste online information with little regard to citing sources. As a result, plagiarism is on the rise. Statistics from research and online plagiarism detection services, such as Plagiarism.Org, support this fact. See http://plagiarism.org/resources/facts-and-stats for more statistical information.
LIU Post plagiarism policies
Most educational institutions have codes of conduct that are in place to deal with academic honesty. Plagiarism is usually included in these policies. Following are the various policies currently in effect at the LIU Post Campus of Long Island University:
From the Student Handbook (2012-2013, p.40-41), "Academic Conduct"
"The following standards of academic conduct are designed to foster the highest ideals of academic integrity. These standards, or set of responsibilities, are intended to clarify expectations for students and instructors. Listed after each one is a description of activities that violate that standard. Adherence to these standards by all members of the campus community promotes excellence in teaching and learning." [Definitions and descriptions are adapted from the UCLA Statement of Academic Integrity in the Department of Student Affairs]
"Academic Respect for the Work of OthersPlagiarism: representing in any academic activity the words or ideas of another as one’s own (whether knowingly or in ignorance) without proper acknowledgement. This principle applies to texts published in print or on-line, to manuscripts, to your own work, and to the work of other students. Acts of plagiarism include but are not limited to:paraphrasing ideas, data, or writing (for instance, from web or online databases, books, periodicals, monographs, maps, charts, pamphlets, and other electronic sources), even if it constitutes only some of your written assignment, without properly acknowledging the source; or using someone’s words or phrases and embedding them in your own writing without using quotation marks and citing the source; orquoting material directly from a source, citing the source on the bibliography page, but failing to mark properly the author’s text or materials with quotation marks and a citation; or submitting as your own part of or an entire work produced by someone else;transferring and using another person’s computer file as your own; orobtaining papers, tests, and other assessment material from organizations or individuals who make a practice of collecting papers for resubmission; or using visual images, dance performances, musical compositions, theatrical performances, and other digital resources (PowerPoint presentations, etc.) as your own without proper acknowledgement."
"Academic Self-RespectFacilitating Academic Dishonesty: assisting another to cheat, fabricate, or plagiarize, including but not limited to:allowing another student to copy from you; or providing material or other information to another student with knowledge that such assistance could be used in any of the violations stated above (e.g., giving test information to students in other sections of the same course); or taking a quiz, exam, or similar evaluation in place of another person; orsigning on the attendance sheet the name of a student who is not present." "Academic HonestyCheating: Improper application of unauthorized materials, information, or study aids, including but not limited to:obtaining unauthorized prior knowledge of an examination or part of an examination; or using resources or instruments on academic tasks not explicitly permitted by the supervising instructor (e.g., textbook, notes, formula list, calculator, etc.); orusing any electronic device in an academic exercise or examination that is not explicitly authorized by the supervising faculty. This includes but is not limited to the Internet, cell phones, beepers, iPods, headphones, PDAs, and other wireless handheld devices; or altering an exam or paper after it has been graded and requesting a grade change; orcollaborating by sharing information or requesting assistance, when such collaboration has been explicitly prohibited by the instructor; or making use of another person’s data or work without proper citation in an assignment; orallowing another person to take a quiz, exam, or similar evaluation for you; orsubmitting work with identical or similar content in concurrent courses without permission of the instructors; or resubmitting a work that has already received credit with identical or substantially similar content in another course without consent of the present instructor." "Academic OriginalityFabrication: falsification or invention of any information or citation in an academic activity, including but not limited to:crediting source material that was not used for research; orpresenting results from research that was not performed; or altering data to support research; orpresenting fabricated excuses for missed assignments, tests, or classes; orfalsifying documents or records related to credit, grades, status, or other academic matters." "Academic FairnessSabotage: this is understood as stealing, concealing, destroying or inappropriately modifying classroom or other instructional material of another, such as posted exams, library materials, laboratory supplies, or computer programs."
From the Graduate Bulletin (2012-2013, p. 13-14), "Academic Irregularities"
"In cases of academic irregularities or dishonesty in examinations or class work, responsibility for disciplinary action is governed by the faculty policy contained in the Academic Conduct Policy. "Plagiarism and cheating are not only serious violations of the rules, but also may reflect adversely on the student’s reputation as well as on the reputation of the Campus. Faculty, administrators and the student body share responsibility for academic integrity. A student in violation of accepted academic procedures may be subject to disciplinary action, up to and including expulsion from the Campus. Faculty members will report to the Academic Dean any case of irregular or dishonest behavior that occurs in the class or in his or her observation. Students may likewise make such a report to the faculty member or dean. The Academic Dean will decide what disposition is to be made of the charges. Requests for appeals may be made to the Student/Faculty Appeals Board.
"In the case of a minor infraction that is the student’s first disciplinary offense, the Dean may authorize the faculty member to dispose of the charges, limiting the maximum penalty to failure in the course. The faculty member will make a report of the incident and the action taken to the dean and the Judicial Affairs Coordinator.
"In the case of a major infraction, or in the case of repeat academic offenses, the student may be subject to suspension or expulsion from the Campus. If current non-academic disciplinary action is pending for a student, further disciplinary action may result, up to and including expulsion from the Campus."
Review: What constitutes plagiarism?
- Turning in another person’s work as your own, and this includes a paper from free website
- Copying a paper, an excerpt, a paragraph, or a line from a source without proper acknowledgement (these can be from a print source, such as a book, journal, monograph, map, chart, or pamphlet, or from a nonprint source, such as the web and online databases
- Taking materials from a source, supplying proper documentation, but leaving out quotation marks
- Paraphrasing materials from a source without documentation of that source
- Purchasing a paper from a research service or a commercial term paper mill
- Sharing or swapping from a local source (from student papers that were previously submitted)
- Creating invalid or faked citations
What will happen to you if you plagiarize?
You may have to:
- Repeat the assignment
- Fail the course
- Face possible suspension
How can you avoid plagiarizing?
Acknowledge sources by giving credit. If you don’t, intentionally or not, it is plagiarism.
What are some sources that need to be credited or acknowledged?
Books, periodicals, pamphlets, charts, statistics, maps, interviews, television, radio, Internet, online databases, and many other types of material. When credit is properly attributed, you reduce the chance of plagiarizing.
Some tips on preventing plagiarism:
Be organized – from the onset of a research project, establish order while gathering information. This will help to alleviate confusion and problems, especially when the time comes for the bibliography, works cited, and reference pages to be prepared.
Use a note card to identify the following:
Source (citation) – common sources:Book: Author, Title, Publisher, Place and Year of publicationPeriodical: Author, Title of Article and Periodical, Year, Vol. Issue and Pages Internet: URL/Web Address, Author ,Title, and the Date site was accessed Quotes – note the page numbers, enclose quoted material in quotation marks, and include a link to the source. Paraphrasing/Summarizing – in your notes, indicate points and ideas in your own words and, again, create a parenthetical reference to the source. To cite, use the Citation Style page on the Library Homepage: http://www2.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citation.htm
If the information is factual or well documented, (e.g. John F. Kennedy was a democrat), then it not imperative to cite. If the information requires credit or documentation, cite it. Information on the Internet, including research papers from paper mills, is available to all (student and professor). Professors are experts in their fields, and knowledgeable about current and past research.
If you need additional assistance consult:
Your professor The LIU Post Writing Center, located at http://www.liu.edu/CWPost/Academics/Schools/CLAS/Resources/Writing-Center.aspx; 299-2732, Humanities Hall, room 202. Tutorial Services on the web at http://www.liu.edu/CWPost/StudentLife/Services/LSC/Tutoring.aspx
By adhering to the five principles of the ethos statement: "respect for oneself, respect for others, respect for property, respect for authority, and honesty," charges for ethical misconduct such as plagiarism can be prevented.
ITU is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies – ICTs.
We allocate global radio spectrum and satellite orbits, develop the technical standards that ensure networks and technologies seamlessly interconnect, and strive to improve access to ICTs to underserved communities worldwide.
Today, ICTs underpin everything we do. They help manage and control emergency services, water supplies, power networks and food distribution chains. They support health care, education, government services, financial markets, transportation systems and environmental management. And they allow people to communicate with colleagues, friends and family anytime, and almost anywhere.
With the help of our membership, ITU brings the benefits of modern communication technologies to people everywhere in an efficient, safe, easy and affordable manner.
ITU membership reads like a Who’s Who of the ICT sector. We’re unique among UN agencies in having both public and private sector membership. So in addition to our 193 Member States, ITU membership includes ICT regulators, leading academic institutions and some 700 private companies.
In an increasingly interconnected world, ITU is the single global organization embracing all players in this dynamic and fast-growing sector.
All literatures of aspects
◦ Google Scholar: scholar.google.com (Some articles are free)
◦ Science Direct (Elsevier): sciencedirect.com (Subscription is needed)
◦ Inderscience: http://www.inderscience.com/
◦ Harvard University Scholar: http://scholar.harvard.edu/
◦ IGI Global: http://www.igi-global.com/
◦ Oxford Journal: http://www.oxfordjournals.org/
◦ Emerald Insight: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/
◦ SAGE Journal: http://online.sagepub.com/
Electronic and Electrical Engineering:
◦ IEEE: ieee.org (Subscription is required)
◦ IEICE: ieice.org (Subscription is required)
◦ MIS Quarterly: http://www.misq.org/ (Subscription is needed)
◦ Springer: www.springer.com
"Zero" is a value. It is the unique, known quantity of zero, which is meaningful in arithmetic and other math.
"Null" is a non-value. It is a "placeholder" for a data value that is not known or not specified. It is only meaningful in this context; mathematical operations cannot be performed on null (the result of any such operation is undefined, and therefore also generally represented as null).
1) Butterfly Kiss – With your faces less than a breath away, open and close your eyelids against your partners. If done correctly, the fluttering sensation will match the one in your heart.
2) Cheek Kiss – A friendly, "I really like you" kiss. Often the preferred kissing method of a first date. With your hands on your partner’s shoulders, gently brush your lips across her cheek.
3) Earlobe Kiss – Gently sip and suck the earlobe. Avoid louder sucking noises as ears are sensitized noise detectors.
4) Eskimo Kiss – With your faces less than a breath apart, gently rub your noses together.
5) Eye Kiss – Hold your partner’s head with both hands and slowly move their head in the direction you wish your kiss to go… then slowly kiss up towards your partner’s eyes and give them a tender kiss on top of their closed eyes.
6) Eyelid Kiss – While your partner is resting/sleeping with eyes closed, very very gently kiss the spot right below their browbone. A very intimate kiss.
7) Finger Kiss – While laying together gently suck on their fingers. This can be very seductive and pleasurable.
8) Foot Kiss – An erotic and romantic gesture. It may tickle, but relax and enjoy it! To give a toe kiss by gently suck the toes and then lightly kissing the foot. It helps to gently massage the base of the foot while performing the kiss.
9) Forehead Kiss – The "motherly" kiss or "just friends" kiss. The forehead kiss can be a comforting kiss to anyone. Simply brush your lips lightly across the crown of their head.
10) Freeze Kiss (or Melt Kiss) – Experiment with this fun kiss. Put a small piece of ice in your mouth, then open mouth and kiss your partner, passing them the ice with your tongue. It’s an erotic and sensual french kiss with a twist of cold.
11) French Kiss – The kiss involving the tongue. Some call this the "Soul Kiss" because the life and soul are thought to pass through the mouth’s breath in the exchange across tongues. Surprisingly, the French call this "The English Kiss".
12) Fruity Kiss – Take a small piece of fruit and place between your lips (juicy fruits such as grapes, strawberries, small pieces of pineapple or mango are ideal). Kiss your partner and nibble one half of the piece of fruit while they nibble the other until it breaks in half, allowing the juice to run into your mouths.
13) Hand Kiss – Gently raise her hand to your lips. Lightly brush your lips across the top of her hand. Historically this kiss was performed with a bow, which showed deference to a lady.
14) Hickey Kiss – The object is not to draw blood, but to gently leave a mark that will prove your interlude was not a dream. This is often included in erotic foreplay.
15) Hostage Kiss – Cover your lips with tape and get your love’s attention. When they come near, make noises like you’re trying to tell them something and motion as if you can’t get the tape off. Once they remove the tape from you to hear what you’re trying to say tell them: "I’ve been saving my lips all day just for you!" Then kiss your love passionately!
16) Hot and Cold Kiss – Lick your partner’s lips so that they’re warm, and then gently blow on them. The sudden cold blast makes for a sensual explosion, and they will often try it on you next, as well as get very passionate.
17) Mistletoe Kiss – Surprise your lover by capturing them with a gentle holiday kiss under the mistletoe. This is also a good method for shyer individuals to steal a kiss from a potential lover.
18) Letter Kiss – Send your lover a kiss in a love letter by writing the letter x several times in a row at the bottom of a letter such as XXXXX.
19) Lick Kiss – Just before kissing, gently run your tongue along you partners lip whether it be the top or bottom one depending on the position of your lips. Very sensual.
20) Lip Sucking Kiss – When kissing gently suck on their lower lip. This can be very exciting.
21) Neck Nibble Kiss – Gently nibble up and down your partners neck. End with a gentle kiss on the lips.
22) Nip Kiss – This kiss can create a very erotic sensation. While kissing your partner, ever so gently nibble on their lips. You must be very careful not to bite to hard or hurt your partner. When done correctly, this kiss ignites wonderful sensations.
23) Reverse Lips Kiss – It involves standing above your lover and kissing them from over their head. This way, each kisser can take the hyper-sensitive bottom lip of thier lover in their mouths, and GENTLY draw blood to the surface of the lip by nibbling and sucking. A very sensuous, connecting kiss.
24)Searching The Cavern – Use the lips and tongue to gently tickle and kiss your lover’s navel. Vary speeds and stroke to change sensation. Invigorating and intoxicating.
25) Shoulder Kiss – Simply come from behind, embrace her, and kiss the top of her shoulder. This is a sensual, loving kiss.
26) sip Kiss – Take a small sip of your favorite drink. Leaving a little bit of it on your lips, kiss your partner. It is a unique way to create a sensual feeling and your partner will enjoy it.
27) Talking Kiss – Whisper sweet nothings into your partner’s mouth. If caught in the act, simply say as Chico Marx, "I wasn’t kissing her. I was whispering into her mouth."
28) Teaser Kiss – Starting on the forehead, a sweet short kiss on lips, then move up the arms up to her hand, kiss her hand, then come back up her arm, to her face and then lightly kiss her lips till she wants a passionate kiss.
29) The Buzzing Kiss – Gently place your lips against your lover’s neck , behind their ear. Now, send a shudder through their skin by gently growling and humming, vibrating your lips and cheeks as you do so. Move up and down the neck, over the bones of the face and lips. Stimulating and erotic when done correctly.
30) The Whipped Cream Kiss – Dip your finger into some cool whip or whipped cream of your choice. Lick it off slowly, then embrace your partner and kiss them deeply letting their tongue slip over yours for a wonderfully sweet kiss. It’s very seductive and passionate.
31) Tiger Kiss – Quietly sneak up behind your partner making sure they do not know what you are going to do. Out of the blue, grab them and gently bite their neck. Make sure to get a few good growls in too. This will surely surprise them.
32) trickle Kiss – Take a sip of a favourite drink and trickle it slowly into partner’s mouth while kissing.
33) Tongue Sucking – A variation of the French kiss. During an open-mouth kiss gently suck on your partner’s tongue (not too hard because it may hurt). Very sexy :-)
34) Quickie Kiss – When you’re in a rush. Often the nose gets it rather than the lips.
35) Vacuum Kiss – While kissing open-mouthed, slightly suck in as if you were sucking the air from your partners mouth. This is a playful kiss.
36) Wake Up Kiss – Before your partner awakes lean over and kiss their cheek and move over giving soft kisses until you reach their lips. Definitely a more than pleasant way to wake up!
37) The Single-Lip Kiss
To give someone a single-lip kiss, take one of their lips between yours and gently suck or tug on it. It’s an awfully romantic kiss, and if you do it right, you’ll send tingles up and down your sweetie’s spine.
38) The Spiderman Kiss
Based on the kiss in the 2002 movie Spider-Man, the Spiderman kiss involves kissing someone whose face is upside-down from yours, so your top lip kisses their bottom lip and vice versa.
39) The Lip Gloss Kiss
This is a fun, flirty kiss for girlfriends to give their boyfriends. Put on a healthy amount of lip gloss or ChapStick, then rub your lips on your partners’ lips until theirs are coated, too. For extra fun, surprise your partner with a sweet, fruity lip gloss flavor.
40) The Hickey
A hickey technically isn’t a kiss; it’s a red mark (a bruise, really) left on the skin after someone sucks hard enough on it. Hickeys hurt a little to get, but some people think the sucking feels good, especially on the side of the neck. It can be embarrassing to walk around with a hickey, so before you start sucking, get permission first.
41) The Secret Message Kiss
In the middle of a French kiss, spell out a secret message with the tip of your tongue against their tongue. It might feel a little funny to the other person, but at least you’ll be getting your message across.
42) The Vampire Kiss
The vampire kiss is a deep kiss on someone’s neck that can involve sucking or light biting on the skin. Since some people find it painful rather than sexy, and since the sucking might leave a hickey, always ask permission before you give someone a vampire kiss.
43) The Wet Kiss
Wet kisses are any open-mouthed kisses, with or without tongue. A little bit of wetness during a kiss can be sexy, but try not to overdo it: too much saliva is sloppy. Alternate between wet kisses and closed-mouth kisses and single-lip kisses, and be sure to swallow occasionally so you don’t accidentally drool all over your partner.
44) The Lizard Kiss
The lizard kiss involves flicking your tongue in and out of your partner’s mouth in tight, quick strokes (picture the way a lizard moves its tongue). This is a silly kiss you can try just for fun, but it generally should be avoided because it feels kind of creepy to get.
45) The Air Kiss
The air kiss is a sophisticated gesture you can use as a greeting to your friends and relatives. To give one, rest your cheek against their cheek and make a kissing sound with your lips.
46) The Biting Kiss
The biting kiss is a more aggressive form of the French kiss. Like the French kiss, it’s open-mouthed and incorporates tongue, but as you pull back, your teeth lightly grab onto your sweetie’s tongue for just a second. Try it once and see how your partner responds. Some people love it, but others think it’s painful or weird.
47) The Angel Kiss
To give someone an angel kiss, kiss them very gently on their eyelids or on the spot right next to their eye, using just your lips. It’s a very romantic way to wake someone up or say goodbye.
48) The Jawline Kiss
To plant a jawline kiss on someone, give them a firm kiss on the bottom of their jaw, right where their face meets their neck. If they respond well to it, make a path of jawline kisses up to their ear and give them an earlobe kiss.
49) The Breath Kiss
The breath kiss is a fun, silly kiss that’s almost more of a game than a kiss. To do it, open your mouth, inhale deeply and lock lips with your sweetie (like you’re performing CPR). Slowly exhale into their mouth while they’re inhaling, "passing" the breath to them. Without moving, slowly inhale while your partner exhales. Keep passing the breath back and forth until one of you runs out of breath or you both erupt in giggles.
50) The Love Kiss
Finally, the love kiss is any kiss that you give while thinking tender, loving thoughts about your partner. You might not realize it, but your kissing style can be influenced by whatever’s on your mind. Smooching with love on your mind will make your kisses extra soft and sweet. Whether it’s on your partner’s mouth, neck, ear or forehead, the love kiss is the most romantic kiss you can give.