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IT Project Management Preparation for Final Exam – University of Puthisastra
- You already managed the projects without realizing it.
- One of your first tasks in managing a project is determining what the project objectives/goals are and making sure that everyone involved agrees on them.
- These days, customers expect high-quality products and services delivered quickly, with a minimum of dispute, and always for the lowest cost.
- CRUD Matrix (Create, Read, Update, Delete): to identify user role
Module/Function User1 User2 User3
Sale Form C,R R,D C
Tax Report R,D …
Preparation for Midterm exam:
- What is a project?
A project is a unique job with a specific goal, clear-cut starting and ending dates, and in most cases a budget
- Triple constrains (scope) of the project:
- A project management answers to the following questions:
o What problem are you solving? (define the problem facing)
o How are you going to solve it?
o How will you know when you’re done?
o How well did it go?
- Project Management Processes:
- Benefit of project management:
high-quality products and services delivered quickly, with a minimum of dispute, and always for the lowest cost.
- Benefits for the project team:
o Chooing the right things to do
o Doing the right things
o Keeping calm and maintaining consistency
o Knowing where you stand
o Maintaining good communication
o Preventing problems
o Identifying manageable workloads
- A project overview summarizes what the project is supposed to achieve, the business value it provides, the work it entails, and how you know when it’s done. You can present this overview to the folks who have the authority to say yes. If all goes well, you can walk out with their signatures on the dotted line.
- Project Overview includes the following elements:
o Problem or opportunity
o Project goal and objectives
o Deliverables and success criteria
o Assumptions and risks
- Project Objectives should be: business objective, financial objective, performance objective, technical objective & quality objective.
- New methods for gathering requirements:
- Re-using existing requirements
- Building prototype
- Interviewing end users
- Conducting group requirements
- Using business process modelling/ use case.
- What stakeholder can assist you?
- During planning:
o Define project objectives, requirements, and constraints.
o Identify workable strategies
o Evaluate the project plan and schedule
o Provide the funding for the project.
- After the project gets going:
o Help resolve issues that arise
o Decide whether changes are necessary
o Control or increase the budget.
- Identify project stakeholder:
o Project customer: money, influence & approval
o Project sponsor: sign project charter, guidance, review, maintain priority.
o Functional Manager: (line manager) contributes, we need to be good relation with them.
o Project Manager: YOU!!!
- Project charter: identify responsibility, & authority. Project charter does not need to be official but can be sent through email.
14. The components of project management plan:
1. Work Breakdown Structure
2. Project organization and resources
3. Project schedule
5. Risk management plan
6. Communication plan
7. Quality plan
8. Change control plan
- Recording change request
- Evaluating cost, schedule, and quality impact
- Accepting, rejecting, or requesting modifications
- Accepting change requests and updating project documents
“The best way to make sure everything gets done is to break the project down into small manageable pieces.”
- Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is the tool that project managers use to divide a project into tasks called work packages. But a WBS helps everyone involved see the scope and organization of the work in one easy-to-read chart.
- WBS contains 2 kinds of task: (1) work packages & (2) summary tasks.
WBS contains 2 kinds of task:
▪ Work Package: These are the lowest-level tasks that represent actual work that people perform. These tasks are called work packages or simply tasks.
▪ Summary tasks: higher-level tasks, which summarize several work packages or several lower-level summary tasks.
- Benefits of a WBS:
o Helps the project planners identify the work to be done and determine the best way to decompose the work
o Helps stakeholders visualize the scope of the project
o Helps people understand their work assignments
o Helps the planners develop more accurate estimates of a project schedule and costs
o Provides a foundation for measuring progress
- We can build WBS in 2 ways: Top Down & Bottom Up
- Project Task Naming
▪ Every task name includes desired result(Noun) and action(Verb) that produces it
▪ Task name without a verb leave the works to be performed in doubt
▪ A task to analyze risk should go on forever
▪ Action verb, such as Identify, prioritize will allow work more clearly
▪ You can name summary task using “ing” to impress everyone. Ex: Developing Money Transfer prototype
▪ And work packages you can name as present tense. Ex: Design Money transfer’s form, Design employee profile form
- Criteria when you should stop WBS:
Few criteria for determining whether WBS is at the right level of detail:
▪ Progress and completion are measurable
▪ Task duration is a reasonable length: Many project managers like to break down package between 8 and 80hours (at least 1 day or no more than 2 work weeks)
▪ Time and cost are easy to estimate
▪ The work packages has a clearly defined start and finish: Should have a clear indication of when it is completed and notify a team member to start for next
▪ Work package can continue without input from another task
▪ The detail is at a level that you can manage: Decompose project work only to the level of detail that you can and want to manage
- The responsibility CRUD Matrix (Create, Read, Update, Delete): to identify user roles.
- The four levels of responsibility matrix: RICA
The four levels are usually abbreviated to RICA:
R indicates Responsiblefor completing the work in a section of the project. For example, a high school junior who’s applying to colleges is responsible for filling out the college application forms.
I indicates Informwhich means that the group merely needs information about the task.
C indicates ConsultedThe group participates in discussions about a decision or direction but isn’t ultimately accountable. They don’t have any authority in the decision.
A indicates AccountableA group can make decisions about the section of the project, approve deliverables or other group’s decisions, and delegate groups to do the work.
- There are three types of Project Resource:
▪ Work Resources: People and equipment both count as work resources, because you schedule their time. In most cases, the cost for work resources is based on how much of the resource’s time you use, such as paying someone by the hour or renting equipment.
▪ Material resources: Materials consumed during a project, such as concrete, steel, paper and food. Material costs are measured by quantity. In Project, you assign the quantity of materials you need, so the program can calculate the cost.
▪ Cost resources: Projects may incur other expenses, such as travel, training, meeting room rentals, fees, and so on. Costs that aren’t related to hours worked or quantities consumed. You can assign each cost resource you use for a task and specify its cost for that task. You can look at the total cost for a cost resource to see how much you spent on that expense.
Managing a TEAM:
They rely on the leader for direction. The team members haven’t sorted out their roles and responsibilities with each other and often don’t agree on their goals as a team.
As the leader, you must define the goals clearly, direct the team members, and answer their questions about what they are supposed to do and how they fit into the big picture of the project.
The struggles and disagreements mean discussion, and that communication helps the group clarify its purpose.
However, if the team begins storming over issues not related to the project at hand, you, as project manager, must help them focus on more productive discussions.
The leader must help the team reach decisions—and compromises, if necessary.
When the storm quiets down, you’ll find that the team is finally a team. The team members understand the purpose of the group and their roles and responsibilities in achieving the team objectives.
At this point, you, as the leader, can delegate some of the leadership to the team. Your role becomes facilitation.
A team at this level has a clear vision of what it is doing and why, so it has little need for a leader. In fact, the team leads itself, so you simply delegate tasks or subprojects to the team and let it work out how best to meet your criteria.