As an administrator of a network, you have just completed all the configuration and they are working nicely. Now maybe the next thing you want to do is to set up something that can alert you when something goes wrong or down in your network. Syslog is an excellent tool for system monitoring and is almost always included in your distribution.
Places to store and display syslog messages
There are some places we can send syslog messages to:
|Place to store syslog messages||Command to use|
|Internal buffer (inside a switch or router)||logging buffered [size]|
|Flash memory||logging file flash:filename|
|Nonconsole terminal (VTY connection…)||terminal monitor|
|Console line||logging console|
Note: If sent to a syslog server, messages are sent on UDP port 514.
By default, Cisco routers and switches send log messages to the console. We should use a syslog server to contain our logging messages with the loggingcommand. Syslog server is the most popular place to store logging messages and administrators can easily monitor the wealth of their networks based on the received information.
A syslog message has the following format:
|seq no:timestamp%FACILTY-SEVERITY-MNEMONIC: message text|
Each portion of a syslog message has a specific meaning:
+ Seq no: a sequence number only if the service sequence-numbers global configuration command is configured
+ Timestamp: Date and time of the message or event. This information appears only if the service timestamps global configuration command is configured.
+ FACILITY: This tells the protocol, module, or process that generated the message. Some examples are SYS for the operating system, IF for an interface…
+ SEVERITY: A number from 0 to 7 designating the importance of the action reported. The levels are:
|0||emergencies||System is unusable|
|1||alerts||Immediate action is needed|
|2||critical||Critical conditions exist|
|3||errors||Error conditions exist|
|4||warnings||Warning conditions exist|
|5||notification||Normal, but significant, conditions exist|
The highest level is level 0 (emergencies). The lowest level is level 7. To change the minimum severity level that is sent to syslog, use the logging trap levelconfiguration command. If you specify a level, that level and all the higher levels will be displayed. For example, by using the logging console warningscommand, all the logging of emergencies, alerts, critical, errors, warnings will be displayed. Levels 0 through 4 are for events that could seriously impact the device, whereas levels 5 through 7 are for less-important events. By default, syslog servers receive informational messages (level 6).
+ MNEMONIC: A code that identifies the action reported.
+ message text: A plain-text description of the event that triggered the syslog message.
Let’s see an example of the syslog message:
|39345: May 22 13:56:35.811: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0/0/1, changed state to down|
+ seq no: 39345
+ Timestamp: May 22 13:56:35.811
+ FACILTY: LINEPROTO
+ SEVERITY level: 5 (notification)
+ MNEMONIC: UPDOWN
+ message text: Line protocol on Interface Serial0/0/1, changed state to down
The following example tells the device to store syslog messages to a server on 10.10.10.150 and limit the messages for levels 4 and higher (0 through 4):
Router(config)#logging trap 4
Of course on the server 10.10.10.150 we have to use a syslog software to capture the syslog messages sent to this server.