MariaDB – Drop-in replacement for Oracle MySQL server

MariaDB is a community-developed fork of the MySQL server. MariaDB is going to be default in many popular Linux distro and open source project. Red Hat will switch the default database in its enterprise distribution, RHEL (including its clones such as CentOS), from MySQL to MariaDB, when version 7 is released in 2014. I started testing MariaDB and found no problems at all. The speed is same or better in some cases.

Operating system : Cross-platform
Purpose : RDBMS
Targets : DevOps/Sysadmins
License : GPL/LGPL
Download url :

Linux Logs tools and location

  1. less command
  2. more command
  3. cat command
  4. grep command
  5. tail command
  6. zcat command
  7. zgrep command
  8. zmore command

How do I view log files on Linux?

Open the Terminal or login as root user using ssh command. Go to /var/logs directory using the following cd command:
# cd /var/logs

To list files use the following ls command:
# ls
Sample outputs from RHEL 6.x server:

 anaconda.ifcfg.log boot.log-20111225 cron-20131110.gz maillog-20111218 messages-20131103.gz secure-20131027.gz spooler-20131117.gz up2date-20131117.gz anaconda.log btmp cron-20131117.gz maillog-20111225 messages-20131110.gz secure-20131103.gz squid uptrack.log anaconda.program.log btmp-20120101 cups maillog-20120101 messages-20131117.gz secure-20131110.gz swinstall.d uptrack.log.1 btmp-20131101.gz dkms_autoinstaller maillog-20131027.gz mysqld.log secure-20131117.gz tallylog uptrack.log.2 anaconda.syslog collectl dmesg maillog-20131103.gz ntpstats setroubleshoot UcliEvt.log varnish anaconda.yum.log ConsoleKit dmesg.old maillog-20131110.gz prelink spooler up2date wtmp arcconfig.xml cron dracut.log maillog-20131117.gz rhsm spooler-20111211 up2date-20111211 yum.log atop cron-20111211 dracut.log-20120101 messages sa spooler-20111218 up2date-20111218 yum.log-20120101 audit cron-20111218 dracut.log-20130101.gz messages-20111211 secure spooler-20111225 up2date-20111225 yum.log-20130101.gz boot.log cron-20111225 httpd messages-20111218 secure-20111211 spooler-20120101 up2date-20120101 boot.log-20111204 cron-20120101 lastlog messages-20111225 secure-20111218 spooler-20131027.gz up2date-20131027.gz boot.log-20111211 cron-20131027.gz maillog messages-20120101 secure-20111225 spooler-20131103.gz up2date-20131103.gz boot.log-20111218 cron-20131103.gz maillog-20111211 messages-20131027.gz secure-20120101 spooler-20131110.gz up2date-20131110.gz 

To view a common log file called /var/log/messages use any one of the following command:
# less /var/log/messages
# more -f /var/log/messages
# cat /var/log/messages
# tail -f /var/log/messages
# grep -i error /var/log/messages

Sample outputs:

 Jul 17 22:04:25 router dnsprobe[276]: dns query failed Jul 17 22:04:29 router last message repeated 2 times Jul 17 22:04:29 router dnsprobe[276]: Primary DNS server Is Down... Switching To Secondary DNS server Jul 17 22:05:08 router dnsprobe[276]: Switching Back To Primary DNS server Jul 17 22:26:11 debian -- MARK -- Jul 17 22:46:11 debian -- MARK -- Jul 17 22:47:36 router -- MARK -- Jul 17 22:47:36 router dnsprobe[276]: dns query failed Jul 17 22:47:38 debian kernel: rtc: lost some interrupts at 1024Hz. Jun 17 22:47:39 debian kernel: IN=eth0 OUT= MAC=00:0f:ea:91:04:07:00:08:5c:00:00:01:08:00 SRC= DST= LEN=60 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=46 ID=21599 DF PROTO=TCP SPT=59297 DPT=22 WINDOW=5840 RES=0x00 SYN URGP=0

Common Linux log files names and usage

  • /var/log/messages : General message and system related stuff
  • /var/log/auth.log : Authenication logs
  • /var/log/kern.log : Kernel logs
  • /var/log/cron.log : Crond logs (cron job)
  • /var/log/maillog : Mail server logs
  • /var/log/qmail/ : Qmail log directory (more files inside this directory)
  • /var/log/httpd/ : Apache access and error logs directory
  • /var/log/lighttpd/ : Lighttpd access and error logs directory
  • /var/log/boot.log : System boot log
  • /var/log/mysqld.log : MySQL database server log file
  • /var/log/secure or /var/log/auth.log : Authentication log
  • /var/log/utmp or /var/log/wtmp : Login records file
  • /var/log/yum.log : Yum command log file.
By vichhaiy Posted in Linux

Configure DNS (bind9) on Ubuntu

Planning Your Domain Name

Before we can even start configuring our domain name server, we should have a good idea of how our domain will look. There are a few considerations that will impact the naming scheme you will use.

Forward Lookup Zones

These domain zones are used to convert names into IP addresses. You use one every time you access a website by it’s name. This is what we’ll be creating in this tutorial.

Reverse Lookup Zones

When you need to convert an IP address into a host name, you configure a reverse lookup zone. It’s used a lot for name verification when all you have is an IP address.

Naming Your Domain

There are a few rules you should follow when deciding on the name of your domain.

  • A domain name must contain between 2 and 63 characters before the punctuation.
  • A domain name can only contain the letters A-Z, the digits 0-9 and hyphen (-)
  • If it’s for internal hosting only, it should not end in .com, .net, .ca, .org, or any other top level domain name (TLD). An example of an internal TLD is .intra.
  • It should have a minimum of two domain levels – mydomainname.tld.

For this tutorial I will be using the domain name of serverlab.intra. It will be used for hosting internal records only.

Name Server Types

There are a few types of roles for a name server. In this tutorial we’re only going to focus on two – the master (primary) and a slave (secondary). The following list describes the most popular name server roles.

Role Description
Master This server is where all adds and modifications are done. It is what is called an SOA (Start of Authority) server. No records are zones changes can be made without its knowledge.
Slave This server is allowed to host a replica copy of a domain zone hosted by a master server. You should always have at least one slave for redundancy reasons. The server will act as an authority of a domain when the master is not available. It’s only limitation is that you cannot add records to or modify the domain on this server. It is read-only.
Caching A caching server doesn’t actually host any domains. Instead, it caches every lookup done by a client after it resolves a name. It resolves domains by forwarding the requests to other DNS servers, like your ISP’s DNS servers. The benefit of having a caching server is name resolution performance can be greatly increased.

DNS Record Types

There are a large number of DNS records types that can be employed in your domain, each with it’s own specific service, like e-mail, computer host names, name servers, and so on. Here is a brief list of record types that can be used.

Type Description
A Address Record
Used to assign a domain name to an IP address.
NS Name Server
Used to specify the domain name of name servers for a zone.
SOA Start of Authority
The absolutely authority domain name server of a domain or entire zone. This is typically a master server.
MX Mail Exchange
This record specifies which server or servers host the e-mail services for a domain. Without this record, clients and other mail servers would not be able to determine your mail servers.

Install and Configure BIND

Follow these instructions on both servers, NS1 and NS2.

  1. Install the required packages for BIND.
    sudo apt-get install bind9
  2. Start the BIND service to enable domain name lookups.
    sudo service bind9 start

Create Your Domain

We’re going to create our first zone file for our desired domain. The zone file is what will contain our name records for our domain. It’s a simple database, if you will, of names to IP addresses than can easily be modified with any text editor.

To make things easy for us, we’re going to copy a template.

  1. Log onto the primary server, NS1.
  2. Create the new zone file by copying an existing template.
    sudo cp /etc/bind/db.empty /etc/bind/db.serverlab.intra
  3. Open the new zone file into a text editor, like Nano.
    sudo nano /etc/bind/db.serverlab.intra
    Your zone file should look similar to the example below.

    ; BIND reverse data file for empty rfc1918 zone ; ; DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE - it is used for multiple zones. ; Instead, copy it, edit named.conf, and use that copy. ; $TTL 86400 @ IN SOA localhost. root.localhost. ( 1 ; Serial 604800 ; Refresh 86400 ; Retry 2419200 ; Expire 86400 ) ; Negative Cache TTL ; @ IN NS localhost. 
  4. Modify the file to match your environment’s configuration. We need to set the Start of Authority server (SOA) – the primary name server for our domain name, the e-mail address of the administrator, the Name Server record (NS) for our name server (ns1), and a Address record for the name server (ns1).
    ; BIND reverse data file for empty rfc1918 zone ; ; DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE - it is used for multiple zones. ; Instead, copy it, edit named.conf, and use that copy. ; $TTL 86400 @ IN SOA ns1.serverlab.intra. admin.serverlab.intra. ( 1 ; Serial 604800 ; Refresh 86400 ; Retry 2419200 ; Expire 86400 ) ; Negative Cache TTL ; @ IN NS ns1.serverlab.intra. @ IN NS ns2.serverlab.intra. ns1 IN A ns2 IN A 
  5. Now we add the address records (A) for the computers in our environment.
     ; BIND reverse data file for empty rfc1918 zone ; ; DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE - it is used for multiple zones. ; Instead, copy it, edit named.conf, and use that copy. ; $TTL 86400 @ IN SOA ns1.serverlab.intra. admin.serverlab.intra. ( 1 ; Serial 604800 ; Refresh 86400 ; Retry 2419200 ; Expire 86400 ) ; Negative Cache TTL ; @ IN NS ns1.serverlab.intra. @ IN NS ns2.serverlab.intra. ns1 IN A ns2 IN A desktop01 IN A desktop02 IN A desktop03 IN A desktop04 IN A fileserver01 IN A fileserver02 IN A mailserver01 IN A 
  6. Save changes to the file and exit the text editor.

Add Your Domain to BIND

  1. Open the BIND configuration file into a text editor, like Nano.
    sudo nano /etc/bind/named.conf
  2. Add the following lines to the end of the file.
    zone "serverlab.intra" { type master; file "/etc/bind/db.serverlab.intra"; allow-transfer {; }; }; 
    Type Specifies the name server type – Master or Slave.
    File The location of the zone’s database file.
    Allow-Transfer Specify which servers, by IP address, are allowed to download the zone file.
  3. Save your changes and exit the text editor.
  4. Instruct BIND to load our new domain.
    sudo service bind9 reload

Configure the DNS Server to Query Itself

In order for your domain name server to return lookups, it needs to be able to query itself. To do this we’re going to modify its client DNS settings.

  1. Open the resolv.conf file into a text editor.
    sudo nano /etc/resolv.conf
  2. Modify it so that it contains the following lines.
    nameserver search serverlab.intra 
    nameserver Sets the IP address of the DNS server to be queried. You can add as many nameserver entries as you have DNS servers for your domain.
    search The search option is used to append the defined domain name to all of your single-label lookups – any lookup that contains a computer name without a domain name appended. For example, desktop01. This way you don’t have to type the entire fully qualified domain name, desktop01.serverlab.intra.
  3. Save your changes and exit the text editor.
  4. Test your name resolution by ping a computer registered in your domain using its fully qualified domain name.
    ping desktop01.serverlab.intra
  5. Another method of testing name resolution is to use the Dig tool. It returns more detailed results about your lookup.
    dig desktop01.serverlab.intra
  6. The Dig command will return the following results, which shows the question, the return answer, and which DNS server gave the response.
    ; <<>> DiG 9.9.3-rpz2+rl.13214.22-P2-Ubuntu-1:9.9.3.dfsg.P2-4ubuntu1.1 <<>> desktop01.serverlab.intra ;; global options: +cmd ;; Got answer: ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 688 ;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 2 ;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION: ; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 4096 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ;desktop01.serverlab.intra. IN A ;; ANSWER SECTION:
    desktop01.serverlab.intra. 86400 IN A ;; AUTHORITY SECTION: serverlab.intra. 86400 IN NS ns1.serverlab.intra. ;; ADDITIONAL SECTION: ns1.serverlab.intra. 86400 IN A ;; Query time: 1 msec
    ;; SERVER: ;; WHEN: Fri Jan 17 23:28:17 CST 2014 ;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 104 

Configure the Secondary DNS Server

  1. Log onto the secondary (slave) DNS server, NS2.
  2. Open the Bind configuration file into a text editor.
    sudo nano /etc/bind/named.conf
  3. Add a zone entry for our domain zone using the following configuration.
    zone "serverlab.intra" { type slave; master {; }; file "/etc/bind/db.serverlab.intra"; }; 
    Type Specifies the name server type – Master or Slave.
    Master Specifies the IP address of the master server.
    File Specifices the location of the replica zone database file.
  4. Save your changes and exit the text editor.
  5. Instruct Bind to reload it’s configuration file.
    sudo service bind9 reload
  6. Our domain should not be downloading to our secondary server. Check that it exits by navigating to the location specified in Bind’s configuration file.

See more:

By vichhaiy Posted in Linux

Configure DHCP (dhcp3) Server on Ubuntu

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network service that enables host computers to be automatically assigned settings from a server as opposed to manually configuring each network host. Computers configured to be DHCP clients have no control over the settings they receive from the DHCP server, and the configuration is transparent to the computer’s user.

Note: newer Ubuntu editions use another name for this package (isc-dhcp-server) and the configuration is slightly different. See the page isc-dhcp-server


At a terminal prompt, enter the following command to install dhcpd:

 sudo apt-get install dhcp3-server

You will probably need to change the default configuration by editing /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf to suit your needs and particular configuration.

You also need to edit /etc/default/dhcp3-server to specify the interfaces dhcpd should listen to. By default it listens to eth0.


The error message the installation ends with might be a little confusing, but the following steps will help you configure the service:

Most commonly, what you want to do is assign an IP address randomly. This can be done with settings as follows:

 nano -w /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf
 # Sample /etc/dhcpd.conf # (add your comments here) default-lease-time 600; max-lease-time 7200; option subnet-mask; option broadcast-address; option routers; option domain-name-servers,; option domain-name "mydomain.example"; subnet netmask { range; range; } 

This will result in the DHCP server giving a client an IP address from the range or It will lease an IP address for 600 seconds if the client doesn’t ask for a specific time frame. Otherwise the maximum (allowed) lease will be 7200 seconds. The server will also "advise" the client that it should use as its subnet mask, as its broadcast address, as the router/gateway and and as its DNS servers.

If you need to specify a WINS server for your Windows clients, you will need to include the netbios-name-servers option, e.g.

 nano -w /etc/default/dhcp3-server
 option netbios-name-servers; 

dhcp3-server and multiple interfaces

multiple interfaces example


 nano -w /etc/network/interfaces
 auto lo iface lo inet loopback mapping hotplug script grep map eth1 iface eth1 inet dhcp auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address netmask auto wlan0 iface wlan0 inet static address netmask up /sbin/iwconfig wlan0 mode TTTTTT && /sbin/iwconfig wlan0 enc restricted && /sbin/iwconfig wlan0 key [Y] XXXXXXXX && /sbin/iwconfig wlan0 essid SSSSSSSS auto eth1

Select Interface card

 nano -w /etc/default/dhcp3-server
 INTERFACES="wlan0 eth0"

Configure Subnet

 nano -w /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf
 ddns-update-style none; log-facility local7; subnet netmask { option routers; option subnet-mask; option broadcast-address; option domain-name-servers; option ntp-servers; option netbios-name-servers; option netbios-node-type 2; default-lease-time 86400; max-lease-time 86400; host bla1 { hardware ethernet DD:GH:DF:E5:F7:D7; fixed-address; } host bla2 { hardware ethernet 00:JJ:YU:38:AC:45; fixed-address; } } subnet netmask { option routers; option subnet-mask; option broadcast-address; option domain-name-servers; option ntp-servers; option netbios-name-servers; option netbios-node-type 2; default-lease-time 86400; max-lease-time 86400; host bla3 { hardware ethernet 00:KK:HD:66:55:9B; fixed-address; } }

Check Route

 ip route dev wlan0 scope link 82.16.TT.0/24 dev eth1 scope link dev eth0 scope link default via 82.16.TT.UU dev eth1
By vichhaiy Posted in Linux

Ubuntu Linux Configure DNS Name resolution

Type the following command, enter:
$ sudo vi /etc/resolv.conf
Or use nano text editor:
$ sudo nano /etc/resolv.conf
Append your ISP name server or free fast dns nameservers IP address as follows:

Save and close the file. Test your dns configuration by typing the following commands:
$ host
$ nslookup
$ ping

System board?

A "system board" is another name for motherboard. Therefore integrated and non-integrated system boards are two types of motherboards.

An integrated system board has multiple components integrated into the board itself. These may include the CPU, video card, sound card, and various controller cards.

A non-integrated system board uses installable components and expansion cards. For example, a non-integrated system board may allow you to upgrade the video card by removing the old one and installing a new one. Non-integrated motherboards typically have several PCI expansion slots as well.

Most laptop use fully integrated system boards, since they provide a smaller form factor than non-integrated boards. Desktop computers often use non-integrated motherboards, though they may contain some integrated parts. For example, most modern motherboards used in desktop computers have an integrated sound card and controller cards. Some may even have an integrated processor and video card as well.

Since non-integrated system boards often have some integrated components, it is difficult to define the exact difference between the two types. In fact, it may be more accurate to refer to a non-integrated system board as a partially integrated system board. Still, when it comes to technical specifications, it can be helpful to know what the difference is between integrated and non-integrated motherboards. While there is no official definition of either type, here is what I have found:

In most cases, the difference comes down to the video card. If a motherboard has an integrated graphics processor, it is generally considered to be an integrated motherboard. If the graphics processor resides on a removable card, then the motherboard is considered to be non-integrated. Therefore, when you see the terms "integrated" or "non-integrated" in technical specifications, you can at least tell what type of graphics processor the system uses.

[tag mother board, system board, mainboard]

Ubuntu DNS Client Configuration

DNS Client Configuration

Traditionally, the file /etc/resolv.conf was a static configuration file that rarely needed to be changed or automatically changed via DCHP client hooks. Nowadays, a computer can switch from one network to another quite often and the resolvconf framework is now being used to track these changes and update the resolver’s configuration automatically. It acts as an intermediary between programs that supply nameserver information and applications that need nameserver information. Resolvconf gets populated with information by a set of hook scripts related to network interface configuration. The most notable difference for the user is that any change manually done to /etc/resolv.conf will be lost as it gets overwritten each time something triggers resolvconf. Instead, resolvconf uses DHCP client hooks, and /etc/network/interfacesto generate a list of nameservers and domains to put in /etc/resolv.conf, which is now a symlink:

 /etc/resolv.conf -> ../run/resolvconf/resolv.conf 

To configure the resolver, add the IP addresses of the nameservers that are appropriate for your network in the file/etc/network/interfaces. You can also add an optional DNS suffix search-lists to match your network domain names. For each other valid resolv.conf configuration option, you can include, in the stanza, one line beginning with that option name with a dns- prefix. The resulting file might look like the following:

 iface eth0 inet static address netmask gateway dns-search dns-nameservers
By vichhaiy Posted in Linux

Root, Prefix and Suffix

Root, Prefix or Suffix Meaning Examples
a, ac, ad, af, ag, al, an, ap, as, at to, toward, near, in addition to, by aside, accompany, adjust, aggression, allocate, annihilate, affix, associate, attend, adverb
a-, an- not, without apolitical, atheist, anarchy, anonymous, apathy, aphasia, anemia
ab, abs away from, off absolve, abrupt, absent
-able, -ible Adjective: worth, ability solvable, incredible
acer, acid, acri bitter, sour, sharp acerbic, acidity, acrid, acrimony
act, ag do, act, drive active, react, agent, active, agitate
acu sharp acute, acupuncture, accurate
-acy, -cy Noun: state or quality privacy, infancy, adequacy, intimacy, supremacy
-ade act, product, sweet drink blockade, lemonade
aer, aero air, atmosphere, aviation aerial, aerosol, aerodrome
ag, agi, ig, act do, move, go agent, agenda, agitate, navigate, ambiguous, action
-age Noun: activity, or result of action courage, suffrage, shrinkage, tonnage
agri, agro pertaining to fields or soil agriculture, agroindustry
-al Noun: action, result of action referral, disavowal, disposal, festival
-al, -ial, -ical Adjective: quality, relation structural, territorial, categorical
alb, albo white, without pigment albino, albite
ali, allo, alter other alias, alibi, alien, alloy, alter, alter ego, altruism
alt high, deep altimeter, altitude
am, ami, amor love, like, liking amorous, amiable, amicable, enamoured
ambi both ambidextrous
ambul to walk ambulatory, amble, ambulance, somnambulist
-an Noun: person artisan, guardian, historian, magician
ana, ano up, back, again, anew anode, anagram, anagenetic
-ance, -ence Noun: action, state, quality or process resistance, independence, extravagance, fraudulence
-ancy, -ency Noun: state, quality or capacity vacancy, agency, truancy, latency
andr, andro male, characteristics of men androcentric, android
ang angular angle
anim mind, life, spirit, anger animal, animate, animosity
ann, annu, enni yearly annual, annual, annuity, anniversary, perrenial
-ant, -ent Noun: an agent, something that performs the action disinfectant, dependent, fragrant
-ant, -ent, -ient Adjective: kind of agent, indication important, dependent, convenient
ante before anterior, anteroom, antebellum, antedate, antecedent antediluvian
anthrop man anthropology, misanthrope, philanthropy
anti, ant against, opposite antisocial, antiseptic, antithesis, antibody, antinomies, antifreeze, antipathy
anti, antico old antique, antiquated, antiquity
apo, ap, aph away from, detached, formed apology, apocalypse, aphagia
aqu water aqueous
-ar, -ary Adjective: resembling, related to spectacular, unitary
arch chief, first, rule archangel, architect, archaic, monarchy, matriarchy, patriarchy, Archeozoic era
-ard, -art Noun: characterized braggart, drunkard, wizard
aster, astr star aster, asterisk, asteroid, astronomy, astronaut
-ate Noun: state, office, fuction candidate, electorate, delegate
-ate Verb: cause to be graduate, ameliorate, amputate, colligate
-ate Adjective: kind of state inviolate
-ation Noun: action, resulting state specialization, aggravation, alternation
auc, aug, aut to originate, to increase augment , author, augment, auction
aud, audi, aur, aus to hear, listen audience, audio, audible, auditorium, audiovisual, audition, auricular, ausculate
aug, auc increase augur, augment, auction
aut, auto self automobile, automatic, automotive, autograph, autonomous, autoimmune
bar weight, pressure barometer
be on, around, over, about, excessively, make, cause, name, affect berate, bedeck, bespeak, belittle, beleaguer
belli war rebellion, belligerent, casus belli, bellicose
bene good, well, gentle benefactor, beneficial, benevolent, benediction, beneficiary, benefit
bi, bine two biped, bifurcate, biweekly, bivalve, biannual
bibl, bibli, biblio book bibliophile, bibliography, Bible
bio, bi life biography, biology, biometricsm biome, biosphere
brev short abbreviate, brevity, brief
cad, cap, cas, ceiv, cept, capt, cid, cip to take, to seize, to hold receive, deceive, capable, capacious, captive, accident, capture, occasion, concept, intercept, forceps, except, reciprocate
cad, cas to fall cadaver, cadence, cascade
-cade procession motorcade
calor heat calorie, caloric, calorimeter
capit, capt head decapitate, capital, captain, caption
carn flesh carnivorous, incarnate, reincarnation, carnal
cat, cata, cath down, with catalogue, category, catheter
caus, caut burn, heat caustic, cauldron, cauterize
cause, cuse, cus cause, motive because, excuse, accusation
ceas, ced, cede, ceed, cess to go, to yield, move, go, surrender succeed, proceed, precede, recede, secession, exceed, succession
cent hundred centennial, century, centipede
centr, centri center eccentricity, centrifugal, concentric, eccentric
chrom color chrome, chromosome, polychrome, chromatic
chron time chronology, chronic, chronicle chronometer, anachronism, synchronize
cide, cis, cise to kill, to cut, cut down fratricide, homicide, incision, incision, circumcision, scissors
circum around circumnavigate, circumflex, circumstance, circumcision, circumference, circumorbital, circumlocution, circumvent, circumscribe, circulatory
cit call, start incite, citation, cite
civ citizen civic, civil, civilian, civilization
clam, claim cry out exclamation, clamor, proclamation, reclamation, acclaim
clin lean, bend decline, aclinic, inclination
clud, clus claus to close, shut include, exclude, clause, claustrophobia, enclose, exclusive, reclusive, conclude
co, cog, col, coll, con, com, cor with, together cohesiveness, cognate, collaborate, convene, commitment, compress, contemporary, converge, compact, confluence, convenient, concatenate, conjoin, combine, correct
cogn, gnos to know recognize, cognizant, diagnose, agnostic, incognito, prognosis
com, con fully complete, compel, conscious, condense, confess, confirm
contr, contra, counter against, opposite contradict, counteract, contravene, contrary, counterspy, contrapuntal
cord, cor, cardi heart cordial, concord, discord, courage, encourage
corp body corporation, corporal punishment, corpse, corpulent, corpus luteum
cort correct escort, cortage
cosm universe, world cosmos, microcosm, cosmopolitan, cosmonaut
cour, cur, curr, curs run, course occur, excursion, discourse, courier, course
crat, cracy rule autocrat, aristocrat, theocracy, technocracy
cre, cresc, cret, crease grow create, crescent, accretion, increase
crea create creature, recreation, creation
cred believe creed, credo, credence, credit, credulous, incredulous, incredible
cresc, cret, crease, cru rise, grow crescendo, concrete, increase, decrease, accrue
crit separate, choose critical, criterion, hypocrite
cur, curs run current, concurrent, concur, incur, recur, occur, courier, precursor, cursive
cura care curator, curative, manicure
cycl, cyclo wheel, circle, circular Cyclops, unicycle, bicycle, cyclone, cyclic
de- from, down, away, to do the opposite, reverse, against detach, deploy, derange, decrease, deodorize, devoid, deflate, degenerate
dec, deca ten, ten times decimal, decade, decalogue, decimate, decathlon
dec, dign suitable decent decorate dignity
dei, div God divinity, divine, deity, divination, deify
dem, demo people, populace, population democracy, demography, demagogue, epidemic
dent, dont tooth dental, denture, orthodontist, periodontal
derm skin, covering hypodermic, dermatology, epidermis, taxidermy
di-, dy- two, twice, double divide, diverge, diglycerides
dia through, across, between diameter, diagonal, dialogue dialect, dialectic, diagnosis, diachronic
dic, dict, dit say, speak dictation, dictionary, dictate, dictator, Dictaphone, edict, predict, verdict, contradict, benediction
dis, dif not, opposite of, reverse, separate, deprive of, away dismiss, differ, disallow, disperse, dissuade, divide, disconnect, disproportion, disrespect, distemper, disarray
dit give credit, audit
doc, doct teach, prove docile, doctor, doctrine, document, dogma, indoctrinate
domin master, that which is under control dominate, dominion, predominant, domain
don give donate, condone
dorm sleep dormant, dormitory
dox thought, opinion, praise orthodox, heterodox, paradox, doxology
-drome run, step syndrome, aerodrome, velodrome
duc, duct to lead, pull produce, abduct, product, transducer, viaduct, aqueduct, induct, deduct, reduce, induce
dura hard, lasting durable, duration, endure
dynam power dynamo, dynamic, dynamite, hydrodynamics
dys- bad, abnormal, difficult, impaired, unfavorable dysfunctional, dyslexia, dyspathy
e- not, missing, out, fully, away, computer network related emit, embed, eternal,ether, erase, email, e-tailer
ec- out of, outside echo, eclipse, eclectic, ecesis, ecstasy, exzema
eco- household, environment, relating to ecology or economy ecology, economize, ecospheres, ecomanagement
ecto- outside, external ectomorph, ectoderm, ectoplasm
-ed Verb: past tense dressed, faded, patted, closed, introduced
-ed Adjective: having the quality or characteristics of winged, moneyed, dogged, tiered
-en Verb: to cause to become lengthen, moisten, sharpen
-en Adjective: material golden, woolen, silken
en-, em- put into, make, provide with, surround with enamor, embolden, enslave, empower, entangle
-ence, -ency Noun: action or process, quality or state reference, emergency, dependence, eminence, latency
end- inside, within endorse, endocardial, endergonic, endoskeleton, endoscope, endogenous
epi- upon, close to, over, after, altered epicenter, epicarp, epilogue, epigone, epidiorite
equi- equal equidistant, equilateral, equilibrium, equinox, equation, equator
-er, -ier Adjective: comparative better, brighter, sooner, hotter, happier
-er, -or Noun: person or thing that does something flyer, reporter, player, member, fryer, collector, concentrator
-er, -or Verb: action ponder, dishonor, clamor
erg work, effect energy, erg, allergy, ergometer, ergograph, ergophobia
-ery collective qualities, art, practice, trade, collection, state, condition snobbery, bakery, geenery, gallery, slavery
-es, -ies Noun: plural of most nouns ending in -ch, -s, -sh, -o and -z and some in -f and -y passes, glasses, ladies, heroes
-es, -ies Verb: third person singular present indicative of verbs that end in -ch, -s, -sh, – and some in -y blesses, hushes, fizzes, defies
-ess female actress, goddess, poetess
-est, -iest Adjective or Adverb: superlative latest, strongest, luckiest, lyingest
ev-, et- time, age medieval, eternal
ex- out of, away from, lacking, former exit, exhale, exclusive, exceed, explosion, ex-mayor
exter-, extra-, extro- outside of, beyond external, extrinsic, extraordinary, extrapolate, extraneous, extrovert
fa, fess speak fable, fabulous, fame, famous, confess, profess
fac, fact, fec, fect, fic, fas, fea do, make difficult, fashion, feasible, feature, factory, fact, effect, manufacture, amplification, confection
fall, fals deceive fallacy, falsify, fallacious
femto quadrillionth femtosecond
fer bear, carry ferry, coniferous, fertile, defer, infer, refer, transfer
fic, feign, fain, fit, feat shape, make, fashion fiction, faint, feign
fid belief, faith confide, diffident, fidelity
fid, fide, feder faith, trust confidante, fidelity, confident, infidelity, infidel, federal, confederacy, semper fi
fig shape, form figurem, effigy, figure, figment
fila, fili thread filigree, filament, filter, filet, filibuster
fin end, ended, finished final, finite, finish, confine, fine, refine, define, finale
fix repair, attach fix, fixation, fixture, affix, prefix, suffix
flex, flect bend flex, reflex, flexible, flexor, inflexibility, reflect, deflect,circumflex
flict strike affliction, conflict, inflict
flu, fluc, fluv, flux flow influence, fluid, flue, flush, fluently, fluctuate, reflux, influx
-fold Adverb: in a manner of, marked by fourfold
for, fore before forecast, fortune, foresee
forc, fort strength, strong effort, fort, forte, fortifiable, fortify, forte, fortitude
form shape, resemble form, format, conform, formulate, perform, formal, formula
fract, frag, frai break fracture, infraction, fragile, fraction, refract, frail
fuge flee subterfuge, refuge, centrifuge
-ful Noun: an amount or quanity that fills mouthful
-ful Adjective: having, giving, marked by fanciful
fuse pour confuse, transfuse
-fy make, form into falsify, dandify
gam marriage bigamy, monogamy, polygamy
gastr, gastro stomach gastric, gastronomic, gastritis, gastropod
gen kind generous
gen birth, race, produce genesis, genetics, eugenics, genealogy, generate, genetic, antigen, pathogen
geo earth geometry, geography, geocentric, geology
germ vital part germination, germ, germane
gest carry, bear congest, gestation
giga billion gigabyte, gigaflop
gin careful gingerly
gloss, glot tongue glossary, polyglot, epiglottis
glu, glo lump, bond, glue glue, agglutinate, conglomerate
gor to gather, to bring together category, categorize
grad, gress, gree to gather, to bring together, step, go grade, degree, progress, gradual, graduate, egress
graph, gram, graf write, written, draw graph, graphic, autograph, photography, graphite, telegram, polygraph, grammar, biography, lithograph, graphic
grat pleasing congratulate, gratuity, grateful, ingrate
grav heavy, weighty grave, gravity, aggravate, gravitate
greg herd gregarious, congregation, segregate, gregarian
hale, heal make whole, sound inhale, exhale, heal, healthy, healthiness
helio sun heliograph, heliotrope, heliocentric
hema, hemo blood hemorrhage, hemoglobin, hemophilia, hemostat
her, here, hes stick adhere, cohere, cohesion, inherent, hereditary, hesitate
hetero other, different heterodox, heterogeneous, heterosexual, heterodyne
hex, ses, sex six hexagon, hexameter, sestet, sextuplets
homo same homogenize, homosexual, homonym, homophone
hum, human earth, ground, man humus, exhume, humane
hydr, hydra, hydro water dehydrate, hydrant, hydraulic, hydraulics, hydrogen, hydrophobia
hyper over, above hyperactive, hypertensive, hyperbolic, hypersensitive, hyperventilate, hyperkinetic
hypn sleep hypnosis, hypnotherapy
-ia Noun: names, diseases phobia
-ian, an Noun: related to, one that is pedestrian, human
-iatry Noun: art of healing psychiatry
-ic Adjective: quality, relation generic
-ic, ics Noun: related to the arts and sciences arithmetic, economics
-ice Noun: act malice
-ify Verb: cause specify
ignis fire ignite, igneous, ignition
-ile Adjective: having the qualities of projectile
in, im into, on, near, towards instead, import
in, im, il, ir not illegible, irresolute, inaction, inviolate, innocuous, intractable, innocent, impregnable, impossible, imposter
infra beneath infrared, infrastructure
-ing Noun: material made for, activity, result of an activity flooring, swimming, building
-ing Verb: present participle depicting
-ing Adjective: activity cohering
inter between, among international, intercept, interject, intermission, internal, intermittent,
intra within, during, between layers, underneath intramural, intranet, intranatal
intro into, within, inward interoffice, introvert, introspection, introduce
-ion Noun: condition or action abduction
-ish Adjective: having the character of newish
-ism Noun: doctrine, belief, action or conduct formalism
-ist Noun: person or member podiatrist
-ite Noun: state or quality graphite
-ity, ty Noun: state or quality lucidity, novelty
-ive Noun: condition native
-ive, -ative, -itive Adjective: having the quality of festive, cooperative, sensitive
-ize Verb: cause fantasize
jac, ject throw reject, eject, project, trajectory, interject, dejected, inject, ejaculate, adjacent
join, junct join adjoining, enjoin, juncture, conjunction, injunction, conjunction
judice judge prejudice
jug, junct, just to join junction, adjust, conjugal
juven young juvenile, rejuvenate
labor work laborious, belabor
lau, lav, lot, lut wash launder, lavatory, lotion, ablution, dilute
lect, leg, lig choose, gather, select, read collect, legible, eligible
leg law legal, legislate, legislature, legitimize
-less Adjective: without, missing motiveless
levi light alleviate, levitate, levity
lex, leag, leg law legal, college, league
liber, liver free liberty, liberal, liberalize, deliverance
lide strike collide, nuclide
liter letters literary, literature, literal, alliteration, obliterate
loc, loco place, area location, locally, locality, allocate, locomotion
log, logo, ology word, study, say, speech, reason, study catalog, prologue, dialogue, zoology, logo
loqu, locut talk, speak eloquent, loquacious, colloquial, circumlocution
luc, lum, lun, lus, lust light translucent, luminary, luster, luna, illuminate, illustrate
lude play prelude
-ly Adverb: in the manner of fluently
macr-, macer lean emaciated, meager
magn great magnify, magnificent, magnanimous, magnate, magnitude, magnum
main strength, foremost mainstream, mainsail, domain, remain
mal bad, badly malformation, maladjusted, dismal, malady, malcontent,malfunction, malfeasance, maleficent
man, manu hand, make, do manual, manage, manufacture, manacle, manicure, manifest, maneuver, emancipate, management
mand command mandatory, remand, mandate
mania madness mania, maniac, kleptomania, pyromania
mar, mari, mer sea, pool marine, marsh, maritime, mermaid
matri mother matrimony, maternal, matriarchate, matron
medi half, middle, between, halfway mediate, medieval, Mediterranean, mediocre, medium
mega great, million megaphone, megaton, megaflop, megalomaniac, megabyte, megalopolis
mem recall, remember memo, commemoration, memento, memoir, memorable
ment mind mental, mention
-ment Noun: condition or result document
meso middle mesomorph, mesoamerica, mesosphere
meta beyond, change metaphor, metamorphosis, metabolism, metahistorical, metainformation
meter measure meter, voltammeter, barometer, thermometer
metr admeasure, apportion metrics, asymmetric, parametric, telemetry
micro small, millionth microscope, microfilm, microcard, microwave, micrometer, microvolt
migra wander migrate, emigrant, immigrate
mill, kilo thousand millennium, kilobyte, kiloton
milli thousandth millisecond, milligram, millivolt
min little, small minute, minor, minuscule
mis wrong, bad, badly misconduct, misinform, misinterpret, mispronounce, misnomer, mistake, misogynist
mit, miss send emit, remit, submit, admit, commit, permit, transmit, omit, intermittent, mission, missile
mob, mov, mot move motion, remove, mobile, motor
mon warn, remind monument, admonition, monitor, premonition
mono one monopoly, monotype, monologue, mononucleosis, monorail, monotheist,
mor, mort mortal, death mortal, immortal, mortality, mortician, mortuary
morph shape, form amorphous, dimorphic, metamorphosis, morphology, polymorphic, morpheme, amorphous
multi many, much multifold, multilingual, multiped, multiply, multitude, multipurpose, multinational
nano billionth nanosecond, nanobucks
nasc, nat, gnant, nai to be born nascent, native, pregnant, naive
nat, nasc to be from, to spring forth innate, natal, native, renaissance
neo new Neolithic, nuveau riche, neologism, neophyte, neonate
-ness Noun: state, condition, quality kindness
neur nerve neuritis, neuropathic, neurologist, neural, neurotic
nom law, order autonomy, astronomy, gastronomy, economy
nom, nym name nominate, synonym
nomen, nomin name nomenclature, nominate, ignominious
non nine nonagon
non not nonferrous, nonsense, nonabrasive, nondescript
nov new novel, renovate, novice, nova, innovate
nox, noc night nocturnal, equinox, noctilucent
numer number numeral, numeration, enumerate, innumerable
numisma coin numismatics
ob, oc, of, op toward, against, in the way oppose, occur, offer, obtain
oct eight octopus, octagon, octogenarian, octave
oligo few, little Oligocene, oligosaccharide, oligotrophic, oligarchy
omni all, every omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, omnivorous
onym name anonymous, pseudonym, antonym, synonym
oper work operate, cooperate, opus
-or Noun: condition or activity valor, honor, humor, minor
ortho straight, correct orthodox, orthodontist, orthopedic, unorthodox
-ory Noun: place for, serves for territory, rectory
-ous, -eous, -ose, -ious Adjective: having the quality of, relating to adventurous, courageous, verbose, fractious
over excessive, above overwork, overall, overwork
pac peace pacifist, pacify, pacific ocean
pair, pare arrange, assemblage, two repair, impair, compare, prepare
paleo old Paleozoic, Paleolithic, paleomagnetism, paleopsychology
pan all Pan-American, pan-African, panacea, pandemonium (place of all the demons),
para beside paradox, paraprofessional, paramedic, paraphrase, parachute
pat, pass, path feel, suffer patient, passion, sympathy, pathology
pater, patr father paternity, patriarch, patriot, patron, patronize
path, pathy feeling, suffering pathos, sympathy, antipathy, apathy, telepathy
ped, pod foot pedal, impede, pedestrian, centipede, tripod, podiatry, antipode, podium
pedo child orthopedic, pedagogue, pediatrics
pel, puls drive, push, urge compel, dispel, expel, repel, propel, pulse, impulse, pulsate, compulsory, expulsion, repulsive
pend, pens, pond hang, weigh pendant, pendulum, suspend, appendage, pensive, append
per through, intensive persecute, permit, perspire, perforate, persuade
peri around periscope, perimeter, perigee, periodontal
phage eat macrophage, bacteriophage
phan, phas, phen, fan, phant, fant show, make visible phantom, fantasy
phe speak blaspheme, cipher, phenomenon, philosopher
phil love philosopher, philanthropy, philharmonic, bibliophile
phlegma inflammation phlegm, phlegmatic
phobia, phobos fear phobia, claustrophobia, acrophobia, aquaphobia, ergophobia, homophobia
phon sound telephone, phonics, phonograph, phonetic, homophone, microphone, symphony, euphonious
phot, photo light photograph, photoelectric, photogenic, photosynthesis, photon
pico trillionth picofarad, picocurie, picovolt
pict paint, show, draw picture, depict
plac, plais please placid, placebo, placate, complacent
pli, ply fold reply, implicate, ply
plore cry out, wail implore, exploration, deploring
plu, plur, plus more plural, pluralist, plus
pneuma, pneumon breath pneumatic, pneumonia,
pod foot, feet podiatry, tripod
poli city metropolis, police, politics, Indianapolis, megalopolis, acropolis
poly many polytheist, polygon, polygamy, polymorphous
pon, pos, pound place, put postpone, component, opponent, proponent, expose, impose, deposit, posture, position, expound, impound
pop people population, populous, popular
port carry porter, portable, transport, report, export, import, support, transportation
portion part, share portion, proportion
post after, behind postpone, postdate
pot power potential, potentate, impotent
pre, pur before precede
prehendere seize, grasp apprehend, comprehend, comprehensive, prehensile
prin, prim, prime first primacy, prima donna, primitive, primary, primal, primeval, prince, principal
pro for, foward propel
proto first prototype, protocol, protagonist, protozoan, Proterozoic, protoindustrial
psych mind, soul psyche, psychiatry, psychology, psychosis
punct point, dot punctual, punctuation, puncture, acupuncture, punctuation
pute think dispute, computer
quat, quad four quadrangle, quadruplets
quint, penta five quintet, quintuplets, pentagon, pentane, pentameter
quip ship equip, equipment
quir, quis, quest, quer seek, ask query, inquire, exquisite, quest
re back, again report, realign, retract, revise, regain
reg, recti straighten regiment, regular, rectify, correct, direct, rectangle
retro backwards retrorocket, retrospect, retrogression, retroactive
ri, ridi, risi laughter deride, ridicule, ridiculous, derision, risible
rog, roga ask prerogative, interrogation, derogatory
rupt break rupture, interrupt, abrupt, disrupt, ruptible
sacr, sanc, secr sacred sacred, sacrosanct, sanction, consecrate, desecrate
salv, salu safe, healthy salvation, salvage, salutation
sanct holy sanctify, sanctuary, sanction, sanctimonious, sacrosanct
sat, satis enough satient, saturate, satisfy
sci, scio, scientia know science, conscious, omniscient, cognocienti
scope see, watch telescope, microscope, kaleidoscope, periscope, stethoscope
scrib, script write scribe, scribble, inscribe, describe, subscribe, prescribe, manuscript
se apart, move away from secede
sect, sec cut intersect, transect, dissect, secant, section
sed, sess, sid sit sediment, session, obsession, possess, preside, president, reside, subside
semi half, partial semifinal, semiconscious, semiannual, semimonthly, semicircle
sen, scen old, grow old senior, senator, senile, senescence, evanescent
sent, sens feel, think sentiment, consent, resent, dissent, sentimental, sense, sensation, sensitive, sensory, dissension
sept seven septet, septennial
sequ, secu, sue follow sequence, consequence, sequel, subsequent, prosecute, consecutive, second, ensue, pursue
serv save, serve, keep servant, service, subservient, servitude, preserve, conserve, reservation, deserve, conservation, observe
-ship Noun: status, condition relationship, friendship
sign, signi sign, mark, seal signal, signature, design, insignia, significant
simil, simul like, resembling similar, assimilate, simulate, simulacrum, simultaneous
sist, sta, stit stand, withstand, make up assist, insist, persist, circumstance, stamina, status, state, static, stable, stationary, substitute
soci to join, companions sociable, society
sol, solus alone solo, soliloquy, solitaire, solitude, solitary, isolate
solv, solu, solut loosen, explain solvent, solve, absolve, resolve, soluble, solution, resolution, resolute, dissolute, absolution
somn sleep insomnia, somnambulist
soph wise sophomore (wise fool), philosophy, sophisticated
spec, spect, spi, spic look, see specimen, specific, spectator, spectacle, aspect, speculate, inspect, respect, prospect, retrospective, introspective, expect, conspicuous
sper render favorable prosper
sphere ball, sphere sphere, stratosphere, hemisphere, spheroid
spir breath spirit, conspire, inspire, aspire, expire, perspire, respiration
stand, stant, stab, stat, stan, sti, sta, st, stead stand stature, establish, stance
-ster person mobster, monster
strain, strict, string, stige bind, pull, draw tight stringent, strict, restrict, constrict, restrain, boa constrictor
stru, struct, stroy, stry build construe, structure, construct, instruct, obstruct, destruction, destroy, industry, ministry
sub, suc, suf, sup, sur, sus under, below, from, secretly, instead of sustain, survive, support, suffice, succeed, submerge, submarine, substandard, subnormal, subvert
sume, sump take, use, waste consume, assume, sump, presumption
super, supra over, above superior, suprarenal, superscript, supernatural, superimpose, supercede
syn, sym together, at the same time sympathy, synthesis, synchronous, syndicate
tact, tang, tag, tig, ting touch tactile, contact, intact, intangible, tangible, contagious, contiguous, contingent
tain, ten, tent, tin hold, keep, have retain, continue, content, tenacious
tect, teg cover detect, protect, tegular, tegument
tele distance, far, from afar telephone, telegraph, telegram, telescope, television, telephoto, telecast, telepathy, telepathy
tem, tempo time tempo, temporary, extemporaneously, contemporary, pro tem, temporal
ten, tin, tain hold tenacious, tenant, tenure, untenable, detention, retentive, content, pertinent, continent, obstinate, contain, abstain, pertain, detain
tend, tent, tens stretch, strain tendency, extend, intend, contend, pretend, superintend, tender, extent, tension, pretense
tera trillion terabyte, teraflop
term end, boundary, limit exterminate, terminal
terr, terra earth terrain, terrarium, territory, terrestrial
test to bear witness testament, detest, testimony, attest, testify
the, theo God, a god monotheism, polytheism, atheism, theology
therm heat thermometer, theorem, thermal, thermos bottle, thermostat, hypothermia
thesis, thet place, put antithesis, hypothesis, synthesis, epithet
tire draw, pull attire, retire, entire
tom cut atom (not cutable), appendectomy, tonsillectomy, dichotomy, anatomy
tor, tors, tort twist torture, retort, extort, distort, contort, torsion, tortuous, torturous
tox poison toxic, intoxicate, antitoxin
tract, tra, trai, treat drag, draw, pull attract, tractor, traction, extract, retract, protract, detract, subtract, contract, intractable
trans across, beyond, change transform, transoceanic, transmit, transportation, transducer
tri three tripod, triangle, trinity, trilateral
trib pay, bestow tribute, contribute, attribute, retribution, tributary
tribute give contribute, distribute, tributary
turbo disturb turbulent, disturb, turbid, turmoil
typ print type, prototype, typical, typography, typewriter, typology, typify
ultima last ultimate, ultimatum
umber, umbraticum shadow umbra, penumbra, (take) umbrage, adumbrate
un not, against, opposite unceasing, unequal
uni one uniform, unilateral, universal, unity, unanimous, unite, unison, unicorn
-ure Noun: act, condition, process, function exposure, conjecture, measure
vac empty vacate, vacuum, evacuate, vacation, vacant, vacuous
vade go evade, invader
vale, vali, valu strength, worth equivalent, valiant, validity, evaluate, value, valor
veh, vect to carry vector, vehicle, convection, vehement
ven, vent come convene, intervene, venue, convenient, avenue, circumvent, invent, convent, venture, event, advent, prevent
ver, veri true very, aver, verdict, verity, verify, verisimilitude
verb, verv word verify, veracity, verbalize, verve
vert, vers turn, change convert, revert, advertise, versatile, vertigo, invert, reversion, extravert, introvert, diversion, introvert, convertible, reverse, controversy
vi way viable, vibrate, vibrant
vic, vicis change, substitute vicarious, vicar, vicissitude
vict, vinc conquer victor, evict, convict, convince, invincible
vid, vis see video, evident, provide, providence, visible, revise, supervise, vista, visit, vision, review, indivisible
viv, vita, vivi alive, life revive, survive, vivid, vivacious, vitality, vivisection, vital, vitamins, revitalize
voc, voke call vocation, avocation, convocation, invocation, evoke, provoke, revoke, advocate, provocative, vocal
vol will malevolent, benevolent, volunteer, volition
volcan fire volcano, vulcanize, Vulcan
volv, volt, vol turn about, roll revolve, voluble, voluminous, convolution, revolt, evolution
vor eat greedily voracious, carnivorous, herbivorous, omnivorous, devour
-ward Adverb: in a direction or manner homeward
-wise Adverb: in the manner of, with regard to timewise, clockwise, bitwise
with against withhold, without, withdraw, forthwith
-y Noun: state, condition, result of an activity society, victory
-y Adjective: marked by, having hungry, angry, smeary, teary
zo animal zoo (zoological garden), zoology, zodiac, protozoan

See more:

FreeBSD PPPoE setup for UK ISPs

I recently changed ISP from ‘Be’ to ‘Goscomb’ (in order to get native IPv6 delivered direct to my broadband). My ADSL modem does not support IPv6, so I decided to use it as a bridge to my FreeBSD router which would handle everything for me.

These instructions should work for any UK ISP – and quite probably other non-UK ISPs too.

First of all, you need to configure your ADSL modem to be in fully bridged mode (this varies so much depending on your modem that I can’t really comment here other than to say… read the manual!) The ATM configuration will be done on your modem, but do not specify any authentication. As I was using Be, my modem was already in bridged unauthenticated configuration (all Be multiple-IP customers will be bridged)

Once you have done this, connect your ADSL modem directly into an interface on the FreeBSD router. Make a note of its interface name (for me, I will use adsl0)

OK, first we need to configure ppp to do the PPPoE authentication. Edit /etc/ppp/ppp.conf in your favourite editor and add a section for your ISP (I will use goscomb) like so:

set speed sync
set mru 1492
set mtu 1492
set ctsrts off

enable echo
set echoperiod 15
enable lqr
set lqrperiod 15

set log Phase tun

enable ipv6cp
enable ipcp
disable dns

set device PPPoE:adsl0
set server /tmp/pppoe-adsl0 “” 0177

set authname usernamehere
set authkey passwordhere

add! default HISADDR
add! default HISADDR6

There’s a few things you may wish to change… First you need to replace all occurrences of adsl0with your interface name.

If your ISP does not support IPv6, you should change enable ipv6cp to disable ipv6cp and remove add! default HISADDR6

Next we need to config the startup sequences… Edit /etc/rc.conf in your favourite editor and add the following:


# PPPoE configuration


Change the three references to goscomb to be the name of your ppp section. Also changeadsl0 to the name of your PPPoE interface.

If you haven’t already, you need to tell your FreeBSD server to be a router by adding the following into /etc/rc.conf:


Of course, you can just add the first line if you have no IPv6 connectivity.

You should be all set. Everytime you reboot, your router will auto-connect to the PPPoE (and reconnect if the connection drops).

To confirm after you have connected, you can check out /var/log/ppp.log which should show things being connected.


By vichhaiy Posted in Linux