Grammar – Noun

 

Noun

 

 

Definition

A NOUN is a word used as name of a person, a job title, a name of a thing, a name of a place, a quantity, an action or feeling.

There are four kinds of Noun in English:

  1. Common Noun
  2. Proper Noun
  3. Collective Noun
  4. Abstract Noun

 

  1. Common Noun: any nouns that refer to people, things, animals or places in general; not particular.

Examples:

A bird is singing the song sweetly in the bush.

The basket is full of mangos.

 

  1. Proper Noun: describes name of people, things animals or places in particular. It always begin with a CAPITAL letter; not a lower letter.

Examples:

I have studied Information Technology at Passerelles Numeriques Cambodia center in Phnom Penh.

Phnom Penh is the capital city of Cambodia.

Columbus discovered America in 1492.

 

  1. Collective Noun: is a noun naming a group of things, animals or persons. It take a singular or plural verb; singular if we consider it as a single group or unit.

Examples:

Our team is the best.

Or plural if we take it to mean a number of individuals

Our team are wearing their new jerseys (T-shirt).

 

Sometimes both are possible

The jury is considering its verdict.

The jury are considering their verdict.

 

Army

Bunch

Clump

Congress

Fleet

Government

Public

Swarm

Herd = flock

Cabinet

Cluster

Crowd

Jury

Parliament

Gang

Team

School

Family

 

 

Examples:

A flock of sheep

A cluster of stars

A heap of stones

A swamp of bees

A crowd of people

A pack of dogs

A bunch of flowers

A bunch of bananas

A gang of thieves

A stack of chairs

A school of fish

A clump of trees

 

 

  1. Abstract Noun: is a noun which names anything that you cannot perceive through your five physical senses (hear, look, taste, feel and smell). It is opposite of a Concrete Noun.

Examples:

Everyone wants beauty.

Death comes to all men.

She is a woman of great knowledge.

 

Abstract Noun derived from verb, adjective and common noun.

 

*** Special Note:

  • Agent Noun: by adding suffixes –er, -or, -ant, -ent, -ist, or -ian to a verb or a noun to shift it into a person.
  • Material Noun: any nouns that refer to te anme of things such as liquid, solid, metal, mine, chemical elements. Material Noun is always singular because it cannot be counted.

 

Examples:

 

Blood

Butter

Cement

Chalk

Cloth

Coal

Coffee

Copper

Crude

Oil

Diesel = fuel

Flour

Iron

Lead

Silver

Gold

 

 

  • Noun of equivalent: uses “the + Adjective” = people who are Adjective.

Examples:

Adjective        Noun of equivalent

Rich            The rich        People who are rich

Poor            The poor        People who are poor

Sick            The sick        People who are sick.

 

Concrete Noun: is opposite of Abstract Noun. You can understand by your 5 physical senses.

  • Compound Noun:

Formed by:

Noun + Noun by 1 word        Ex. Timetables

Noun + Noun by 2 word        Ex. Alarm clock

Gerund + Noun                Ex. Racing horse

N + Gerund                Ex. Horse racing

 

  • Genders of Noun

There are four types of gender nouns in English.

  1. Masculine gender nouns are words for men, boys, and male animals.
  2. Feminine gender nouns are words for women, girls and female animals.
  3. Common gender nouns are nouns that are used for both males and females.
  4. Neuter gender nouns are words for things that are not alive.

We also have a collection of English as a Second Language (ESL) tools & resources for students, teachers, and educators.

 

Here are some masculine and feminine nouns for people.

Male

Female

actor

actress

boy

girl

bridegroom

bride

brother

sister

count

countess

   

dad

mom

   

duke

duchess

   

emperor

empress

father

mother

gentleman

lady

grandfather

grandmother

heir

heiress

   

host

hostess

husband

wife

king

queen

landlord

landlady

man

woman

nephew

niece

policeman

policewoman

prince

princess

sir

madam

son

daughter

steward

stewardess

uncle

aunt

waiter

waitress

   

widower

widow

   

wizard

witch

Here are some masculine and feminine nouns for animals.

Animal

Masculine

Feminine

bear

boar

sow

cat

tom

queen

cattle

bull

cow

chicken

rooster

hen

deer

buck or stag

doe or hind

donkey

jack

jenny

duck

drake

duck

elephant

bull

cow

fox

dog

vixen

goose

gander

goose

horse

stallion

mare

leopard

leopard

leopardess

lion

lion

lioness

peacock

peacock

peahen

pig

boar

sow

rabbit

buck

doe

sheep

ram

ewe

swan

cob

pen

tiger

tiger

tigress

whale

bull

cow

 

Here are some common gender nouns that used for both males and females.

babies

dancers

students

parents

reporters

teachers

singers

engineers

lawyers

artists

spouse

partner

doctor

student

astronaut

chef

nurse

dentist

 

Here are some neuter gender nouns that are used for objects and places.

hospital

school

knife

chair

cave

floor

phone

fire

pen

stick

book

bag

pencil

crayons

flower

shoes


*** Gender of Nouns Flashcards: Masculine, Feminine, Common and Neuter

 

  • Countable and Uncountable Noun

Countable Nouns

Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can count. For example: “pen”. We can count pens. We can have one, two, three or more pens. Here are some more countable nouns:

  • dog, cat, animal, man, person
  • bottle, box, litre
  • coin, note, dollar
  • cup, plate, fork
  • table, chair, suitcase, bag

Countable nouns can be singular or plural:

  • My dog is playing.
  • My dogs are hungry.

We can use the indefinite article a/an with countable nouns:

  • A dog is an animal.

When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it:

  • I want an orange. (not I want orange.)
  • Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?)

When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone:

  • I like oranges.
  • Bottles can break.

We can use some and any with countable nouns:

  • I’ve got some dollars.
  • Have you got any pens?

We can use a few and many with countable nouns:

  • I’ve got a few dollars.
  • I haven’t got many pens.

Uncountable Nouns

Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot “count” them. For example, we cannot count “milk”. We can count “bottles of milk” or “litres of milk”, but we cannot count “milk” itself. Here are some more uncountable nouns:

  • music, art, love, happiness
  • advice, information, news
  • furniture, luggage
  • rice, sugar, butter, water
  • electricity, gas, power
  • money, currency

We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. We use a singular verb. For example:

  • This news is very important.
  • Your luggage looks heavy.

We do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. We cannot say “an information” or “a music”. But we can say a something of:

  • a piece of news
  • a bottle of water
  • a grain of rice

We can use some and any with uncountable nouns:

  • I’ve got some money.
  • Have you got any rice?

We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns:

  • I’ve got a little money.
  • I haven’t got much rice.

Uncountable nouns are also called “mass nouns”.

Here are some more examples of countable and uncountable nouns:

Countable

Uncountable

dollar

money

song

music

suitcase

luggage

table

furniture

battery

electricity

bottle

wine

report

information

tip

advice

journey

travel

job

work

view

scenery

When you learn a new word, it’s a good idea to learn whether it’s countable or uncountable.

 

Next:

 

  • Noun + Preposition + Noun

Father-in-law

Commander-in-chief

Lady-in-waiting

Editor-in-chief

Tug of war

  • Adjective + Noun

Black board

Gold smith

Mid night

Electronic iron

  • Verb + Noun

Pick pocket

Plaything

Playtime

Suitcase

Playday

Hangman

Watchman

Pay dirt

  • Possessive Noun + Noun

Mother’s birthday

Farmer’s dog

Student’s book

  • Noun + Verb

Hand shake

Heart attack

Heart beat

  • Adverb/Prep + Noun

Upstairs

Down town

Underground

  • Adverb/Prep + Verb

Income

Outcome

Output

 

 

Apposition

 

A noun in apposition is a noun placed next to another noun in order to explain and describe it – the noun in apposition functions like an adjective (it describes the noun it modifies).

The noun in apposition always agrees with the noun it is describing in case, and usually in gender and number also.

Examples:

  • Barry Goldwater, the junior senator from Arizona, received the Republican nomination in 1964.
  • John and Bob, both friends of mine, are starting a band.
  • Alexander the Great, the Macedonian conqueror of Persia, was one of the most successful military commanders of the ancient world.
  • Dean Martin, a very popular singer, will be performing at the Sands Hotel.
  • My friend Alice is beautiful.

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